Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 199-202

Individual donor-nucleic acid testing for human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus and its role in blood safety

Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rajesh Kumar
9942, Joshi Nagar, Ludhiana - 141 001, Punjab
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0973-6247.154250

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Background: Transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) are one of the biggest threats to blood transfusion safety. Nucleic acid testing (NAT) in blood donor screening has been implemented in many countries to reduce the risk of TTIs. NAT shortens this window period, thereby offering blood centers a much higher sensitivity for detecting viral infections. Aims: The objective was to assess the role of individual donor-NAT (ID-NAT) for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and its role in blood safety. Materials and Methods: A total of 32978 donations were tested for all three viruses using enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (Vironostika ® HIV Ag-Ab, Hepanostika ® HCV ultra and hepatitis B surface antigen ultra by Biomerieux) and ID-NAT using Procleix Ultrio plus ® Assay (Novartis Diagnostic, USA). All initial NAT reactive samples and serology nonreactive were retested in triplicate and NAT discriminatory assay for HIV-1, HCV and HBV were performed. Results: Of the 32978 samples, 43 (0.13%) were found to be ID-NAT reactive but seronegative. Out of 43, one for HIV-1, 13 for HCV and 27 for HBV were reactive by discriminatory assays. There were two samples that were reactive for both HCV-HBV and counted as HCV-HBV co-infection NAT yield. The prevalence of these viruses in our sample, tested by ID-NAT is 0.06%, 0.71%, and 0.63% for HIV-1, HCV and HBV respectively. The combined NAT yield among blood donors was 1 in 753. Conclusion: ID-NAT testing for HIV-1, HCV and HBV can tremendously improve the efficacy of screening for protecting blood recipient from TTIs. It enables detection of these viruses that were undetected by serological test and thus helped in providing safe blood to the patients.

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2006 - Asian Journal of Transfusion Science | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 10th November, 2006