Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 160-165

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in children: Clinical presentation and treatment outcome


1 Department of Transfusion Medicine and Blood Bank, Super Speciality Pediatric Hospital and Postgraduate Teaching Institute, Noida, Delhi NCR, India
2 Department of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Super Speciality Pediatric Hospital and Postgraduate Teaching Institute, Noida, Delhi NCR, India
3 Department of Pathology, Super Speciality Pediatric Hospital and Postgraduate Teaching Institute, Noida, Delhi NCR, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Nita Radhakrishnan
Department of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Super Speciality Pediatric Hospital and PostGraduate Teaching Institute, Noida, Delhi NCR
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ajts.AJTS_31_20

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BACKGROUND: Autoimmune hemolytic anemias (AIHA) are characterized by the destruction of red cells following the production of autoantibodies directed against them. Although AIHA in children is usually self-limiting, many still succumb to the illness due to delay in the diagnosis and treatment. AIHA in children may be secondary to autoimmune diseases, drugs, or immune deficiencies. Early diagnosis and appropriate immunohematological evaluation can aid in the diagnosis and treatment. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the evaluation, treatment, and outcome of AIHA in children. METHODS: Prospective data of patients aged 0–18 years diagnosed with AIHA between June 2017 and May 2019 were collected. INTERVENTION: Prednisolone was the first-line agent in all; second-line agents included cyclosporine and rituximab. Red cell transfusion was given in those with severe anemia with cardiac decompensation. RESULTS: Eleven patients were diagnosed during the study period. Hemoglobin ranged from 1.2 to 9 g/dl. The initial presentation was severe anemia in 8 children and moderate anemia with thrombocytopenia in 3. The trigger was infection in 5. Polyspecific direct coomb's test (DCT) was positive in 10 patients. 2/10 polyspecific DCT-positive cases on further evaluation had immunoglobulin G (IgG) and C3d positivity, whereas rest 8 had only IgG. One infant was diagnosed with DCT-negative immunoglobulin A-mediated AIHA. 4/11 attained remission following the short course of prednisolone. Cyclosporine was used as the second-line agent in 2 and rituximab was used in 3. Seven children are in sustained remission and off medication. One died within 12 h of diagnosis. CONCLUSION: AIHA is not an uncommon problem in children and can vary in its clinical severity. Early and correct diagnosis helps in deciding appropriate treatment.


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2006 - Asian Journal of Transfusion Science | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 10th November, 2006