Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
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An overview of recent advances in the prevention of erythroblastosis fetalis

1 Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Safety Operations, IQVIA Private Limited, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
V Santhosh Kumar,
Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science Technology and Advanced Studies, Pallavaram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ajts.ajts_50_22

Erythroblastosis fetalis is one of the leading causes of death among newborns and fetuses in India. This condition is characterized by maternal immunoglobin G antibodies destroying the red blood cells (RBCs) of the neonate or fetus, resulting in potentially life-threatening consequences. When a mother with an Rh-positive blood group has a fetus with an Rh-negative blood group, the fetal RBCs trigger maternal antibodies against Rh-antigens. Anti-D antibodies are activated as a result of this process, which is known as isoimmunization. As a result of the antibody reaction, all of the erythrocytes are destroyed, resulting in hemolysis, bilirubin release, and anemia. Intravascular transfusions and intraperitoneal transfusions are examples of antenatal therapies that potentially avoid dangers to the fetus in the early stages of pregnancy. Phototherapy, exchange top-up transfusions, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) injections are examples of postnatal therapies (IVIG). IVIG therapy is highly recommended since it has a low risk of adverse medication responses and a wide range of survival rates. To avoid isoimmunization, anti-Rh D therapies are indicated. Noninvasive identification of the fetal human platelet antigen 1 genotype using cell-free fetal DNA obtained from maternal blood is one example of progress. This is still in the early stages of research as preventive medicine, the platelet equivalent of Rho (D) Immune Globulin Human (RhoGAM). The erythroblastosis fetalis is highly preventable when it is diagnosed at its early stages. Regular screening of all the patients with ABO incompatibility is necessary to prevent the risks of erythroblastosis fetalis.

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2006 - Asian Journal of Transfusion Science | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 10th November, 2006