Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
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   2012| January-June  | Volume 6 | Issue 1  
    Online since April 16, 2012

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TRANSCON 2011 - 36th Annual National Conference of Indian Society of Blood Transfusion and Immunohematology (ISBTI)

January-June 2012, 6(1):59-129
  18,925 303 -
Red cell phenotyping of blood from donors at the National blood center of Malaysia
Rozi H Musa, Suhair A Ahmed, Hasna Hashim, Yasmin Ayob, Nor H Asidin, Poh Y Choo, Fawwaz S Al-Joudi
January-June 2012, 6(1):3-9
Background : Human blood groups are polymorphic and inherited integral structures of the red cell membrane. More than 300 red cell antigens have been identified and further categorized into 30 major discrete systems. Their distribution varies in different communities and ethnic groups. Aims : This work was set to determine the prevalence of red cell phenotypes in donors from the major ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely, Malays, Chinese, and Indians. Materials and Methods : The work utilized the dextran acrylamide gel technique in which four types of gel cards were used to identify the blood groups of 594 subjects collected at the National Blood Transfusion Centre, Malaysia. Results: Blood group O and CDe/CDe (R1R1) were the most common in all ethnic groups. The cde/cde (rr) was more prevalent amongst Indians. The rare phenotypes found were cDE/cDE(R2R2) and cDE/CDE(R2Rz). With the Lewis system, the distribution of Le(a-b+) was similar among the ethnic groups. The rarest phenotype Fy(a-b-) was discovered in two donors. Jk(a-b-) was found in seven Malays and in two Indians. In the MNSs system, MN was common in Malays and Chinese, while the MM was more common among Indians. The rare SS was found in 19 donors. Malay and Chinese subjects had high P1 Negative blood but Indians showed high P1 positive blood. Within the Kell System, the very rare KK type was found in six subjects. Conclusions : The results obtained serve as an established database for the distribution of red cell phenotypes based on the blood group systems of donors from the major ethnic groups in Malaysia.
  14,980 588 12
Comparative study of Treponemal and non-Treponemal test for screening of blood donated at a blood center
Narinder Kaur Naidu, ZS Bharucha, Vandana Sonawane, Imran Ahmed
January-June 2012, 6(1):32-35
The non-Treponemal tests such as Rapid Plasma Reagin test (RPR) or the Venereal Disease Reference Laboratory test are the most commonly used test for screening of syphilis in the blood centers in India. Now, with the availability of Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Immunochromatographic assays in the market, we decided to evaluate these assays in comparison with Treponema pallidum Haemagglutination Assay (TPHA) which was considered as a gold standard for this study. A total of 8 685 samples of voluntary blood donors were tested on Trepolisa 3.0 and then the initially reactive samples were retested in duplicate on the same assay as well as on Omega Pathozyme, RPR, RAPHA (Rapid Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay), and TPHA. Of the 158 initially reactive samples, 104 were repeatedly reactive on the same assay, 85 were reactive with RPR, 77 were reactive with RAPHA, 60 were reactive on Omega, and 53 were confirmed reactive on TPHA. 48 (56.4%) of the results on RPR were biological false positive, while 21.9% of results were false negative on RPR. We evaluated that Omega Pathozyme was quite in agreement with TPHA as compared with Trepolisa 3.0, RAPHA, and RPR. We concluded that Omega Pathozyme (ELISA) can be considered as a suitable test for screening of syphilis in a blood center.
  6,747 256 8
Frequency of ABO and rhesus blood groups in blood donors
Tulika Chandra, Ashish Gupta
January-June 2012, 6(1):52-53
  6,544 233 21
Quality indicators for discarding blood in the National Blood Center, Kuala Lumpur
Mohammed Morish, Yasmin Ayob, Noris Naim, Huda Salman, Nor Asiah Muhamad, Narazah Mohd Yusoff
January-June 2012, 6(1):19-23
Background and Objective: The implementation of quality system and continuous evaluation of all activities of the Blood Transfusion Services (BTS) can help to achieve the maximum quantity and quality of safe blood. Optimizing blood collection and processing would reduce the rate of discard and improve the efficiency of the BTS. The objective of this study is to determine the rate of discard of blood and blood component and identify its reasons at the National Blood Centre (NBC), Kuala Lumpur, during the year of 2007 in order to introduce appropriate intervention. Study Designs and Methods: Data on the number of discarded whole blood units and its components, reasons for discard, and the number of blood components processed as well as the number of collected blood units were obtained from the Blood Bank Information System - NBC database. These were analyzed. Results: The total number of blood units collected in 2007 was 171169 from which 390636 units of components were prepared. The total number of discarded whole blood units and its components was 8968 (2.3%). Platelet concentrate recorded the highest of discard at 6% (3909) followed by whole blood at 3.7% (647), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) at 2.5% (2839), and cryoprecipitate at 2% (620). The rate of discarded packed red blood cells RBCs, plasma aphaeresis, and PLT aphaeresis was less than 1% at 0.6% (902), 0.6% (37), and 0.29% (14), respectively. RBC contamination of PLT and plasma were the major cause of discard at 40% (3558). Other causes include leakage (26% - 2306), lipemia (25% - 2208), and underweight (4% - 353). Conclusion: Good donor selection, training and evaluation of the staff, as well as implementation of automation will help to improve processes and output of BTS. This would reduce discard of blood components and wastage caused by non conformance.
  6,405 244 8
Hepatitis B core antibody testing in Indian blood donors: A double-edged sword!
RN Makroo, Mohit Chowdhry, Aakanksha Bhatia, Bhavna Arora, NL Rosamma
January-June 2012, 6(1):10-13
Background: Until lately, anti-HBc antibodies were considered an effective marker for occult Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and have served their role in improving blood safety. But, with the development of advanced tests for HBV DNA detection, the role of anti-HBc in this regard stands uncertain. Materials and Methods: Anti-HBc and HBsAg ELISA and ID-NAT tests were run in parallel on donor blood samples between April 1, 2006 and December 31, 2010 at the Department of Transfusion Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, New Delhi. A positive ID-NAT was followed by Discriminatory NAT assay. Results: A total of 94 247 samples were tested with a total core positivity rate of 10.22%. We identified nearly 9.17% of donors who were reactive for anti-HBc and negative for HBsAg and HBV DNA. These are the donors who are potentially non-infectious and may be returned to the donor pool. Conclusion: Although anti HBc testing has a definite role in improving blood safety, centers that have incorporated NAT testing may not derive any additional benefit by performing anti-HBc testing, especially in resource-limited countries like ours.
  6,223 101 14
A profile of rare bloods in India and its impact in blood transfusion service
Sanmukh R Joshi, K Vasantha
January-June 2012, 6(1):42-43
From transfusion point of view, a rare blood is the one which lacks a high-frequency antigen as well as the one who lacks multiple common antigens and such blood donations help in transfusion to those recipients having alloantibodies to corresponding antigens. In India, we have about four such kinds of phenotypes potential enough to pose problems in providing blood to the recipients having these phenotypes. Besides, there are other four kinds of rare bloods that pose seldom problems in blood supply, though some of these may cause problems in interpretation of results on assigning proper blood groups for a person.
  5,406 121 5
Red blood transfusion in preterm infants: changes in glucose, electrolytes and acid base balance
Shereen Abdelghaffar, Yasmeen Mansi, Reem Ibrahim, Dina Mohamed
January-June 2012, 6(1):36-41
Background: Preterm neonates comprise the most heavily transfused group of patients, and about 85% of extremely low birth weight newborns receive a transfusion by the end of their hospital stay. The aim of this study was to assess the possible metabolic effects of RBC transfusion on preterm infants, especially during the first 2 weeks of life, and its relation to blood volume. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 40 preterm neonates with gestational age of less than or equal to 34 weeks. They received RBCs transfusion during first 2 weeks of life. Venous blood samples of infants were collected 2 to 4 hours before and 1 hour after the end of transfusion to evaluate hemoglobin (Hb) level, hematocrit, acid-base, electrolytes, and glucose status. Then, infants were classified into two main groups: those who received RBCs volume less than or 20 ml/kg and those who received RBCs volume more than 20 ml/kg. Results: Infants received a mean volume of 20.38 ± 3.2 ml/kg RBCs (range, 10.9 - 26.6 ml/kg) at a median age of 9.8 ± 3.6 days. After transfusion, a significant increase of mean Hb (P<0.001), mean Hct (P<0.001), pH (P<0.001), pO 2 (P<0.05), and a significant decrease of the pCO2 (41.46 ± 8.8torr vs 35.4 ± 9.34 torr; P<0.001) were observed. In addition, there was a significant increase of serum K + (P<0.001), and a significant decrease of Ca +2 (P<0.001). A positive correlation was found between the K + intake and the changes of kalemia (r = 0.99; P = 0.00). Furthermore, we observed an inverse correlation between the patients' calcium intake and the changes of calcemia (r = -0.35; P = 0.02). On comparing the changes in clinical and biochemical variables between two groups after transfusion, we observed a significant increase in mean Hb and Hct associated with a significant decrease in mean serum Ca +2 (P<0.001) in the group receiving the larger blood volume. Conclusion: RBC transfusion was effective in improving anemia, oxygenation, increasing pH, and decreasing CO 2 and Ca +2 . However, from a more clinically relevant point of view, we demonstrated the development of hyperkalemia, especially in infants with a previously borderline hyperkalemia.
  5,177 127 8
Distinct immunoregulatory cytokine pattern in Egyptian patients with occult Hepatitis C infection and unexplained persistently elevated liver transaminases
Yahia Z Gad, Narres Mouas, Azza Abdel-Aziz, Nashwa Abousmra, Mona Elhadidy
January-June 2012, 6(1):24-28
Background/Aim: The immunopathogenesis of occult Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a matter of great controversy and has been suggested to involve a complex balance between cytokines with pro- and anti-inflammatory activity. This work aimed at studying the serum Th1 and Th2 cytokine production in patients with occult HCV infection. Materials and Methods: Serum levels of cytokines of Th1 (interleukin [IL]-2, INF-γ) and Th2 (IL-4) were measured in 27 patients with occult HCV infection and 28 patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Results: The levels of IL-2 and interferon-γ were highly significantly increased in patients with chronic HCV infection (P<0.001). IL-4 was highly significantly increased in occult HCV infection (P<0.001). Significant increases were noted in chronic HCV infection regarding bilirubin (P<0.001), ALT (P = 0.009), AST (P = 0.013), AFP (P<0.001), while serum albumin was significantly higher in occult HCV infection (P<0.001). Necroinflammation (P<0.001), fibrosis (P<0.001), and cirrhosis (P = 0.03) were significantly increased in chronic HCV infection. Conclusion: Our data revealed a high prevalence of occult HCV infection (25%) in patients with unexplained persistently abnormal liver function test results. Those patients exhibited a distinct immunoregulatory cytokine pattern, favoring viral persistence and explaining the less aggressive course of this disease entity than chronic HCV infection.
  5,203 83 5
Family/friend donors are not true voluntary donors
Rohit Jain, Gajendra Gupta
January-June 2012, 6(1):29-31
Background: Family/replacement donors still provide more than 45% of the blood collected in India. National AIDS Control Organization passed the guideline that family/friend donors should be considered as voluntary donors by the blood banks in India. Materials and Methods: We did a prospective analysis of Transfusion Transmitted Infections (TTI's) on our family donors for the years 2009 and 2010 to compare the results and evaluate if family donors are as safe as voluntary donors. Result: The prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B surface antigen, Hepatitis C Virus, and Anti-Treponema Palladium antibody was much higher in family donors in comparison to voluntary donors. Conclusion: Family donors cannot be included amongst voluntary-non-remunerated blood donors as they have a higher rate of TTIs.
  4,701 121 11
Rare blood donor program in the country: Right time to start
Ravneet Kaur, Ashish Jain
January-June 2012, 6(1):1-2
  4,182 85 7
Anti-Leb (Lewis) antibody in renal transplantation, emphasizing the role of transfusion medicine in organ transplantation
B Shanthi, D Sreebhushan Raju, D Dasarath, VS Sandip
January-June 2012, 6(1):53-54
  4,091 70 -
Mechanism and pathophysiology of activated protein C-related factor V leiden in venous thrombosis
Mohd Yusuf , Ashish Gupta, Ashutosh Kumar, Sheeba Afreen
January-June 2012, 6(1):47-48
  3,866 120 -
A study on optimization of plasma pool size for viral infectious markers in Indian blood donors using nucleic acid amplification testing
Ankit Mathur, Jwalant Shah, Ripal Shah, Priti Shah, V Harimoorthy, N Choudhury, Sunita Tulsiani
January-June 2012, 6(1):50-52
  3,845 74 2
Recombinant-activated factor VII in patients with uncontrolled bleeding: A retrospective observational analysis
Said D Abuhasna, Amer H Al Jundi, Hashem A Tarifi
January-June 2012, 6(1):14-18
Background: Factor VIIa (recombinant) has an off-label use to control life-threatening bleeding that is refractory to other measures and was shown to decrease transfusion requirements. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of factor VIIa (recombinant) on blood transfusion requirements and coagulation parameters when used in patients whose bleeding was uncorrected by other means. The pharmacoeconomic impact for any discrepancy from our protocol was evaluated. Secondary outcomes included 4-hour and 28-day mortality, as well as safety of this agent in terms of thromboembolic complications. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients who received recombinant-activated factor VII (rFVIIa) for uncontrolled bleeding from June 2008 to April 2011. The medical records of 33 patients were evaluated. Coagulation parameters and blood products were determined 24 hours before and 24 hours after administration of rFVIIa, and the results compared. Patients were also screened for any thromboembolic complications. Results: Administration of rFVIIa reduced blood transfusion requirements and improved coagulation parameters significantly (P<0.05). No thromboembolic complications were reported. Most of the dosing was consistent with those recommended in our institutional protocol, with discrepancies resulting in an average cost of $56 058. Moreover, pH was reported in only 67% of patients. All patients treated with rFVIIa survived up to 4 hours after receiving this agent, while the 28-day mortality was 24% (8/33). Conclusion: The use of rFVIIa appears to be safe and effective in promoting hemostasis, as evident from reducing transfusion requirements and improving the coagulation variables.
  3,764 78 -
Nonspecific red cell aggregation interferes in the interpretation of gel test results
Sabita Basu, Ravneet Kaur, Gagandeep Kaur, Paramjit Kaur, Anita Tahlan
January-June 2012, 6(1):44-45
  3,689 83 -
Transfusion requirement during dengue fever epidemic in a rural medical college in south India
MS Leena, Mohd. Shafee , GS Jogdand, Faouzia Nilofer
January-June 2012, 6(1):50-50
  3,661 70 -
ABO and Rhesus blood groups in potential blood donors at Durgapur Steel city of the district of Burdwan, West Bengal
Ipsita Nag, Sudipta Sekhar Das
January-June 2012, 6(1):54-55
  3,576 70 6
A near-miss hemolytic transfusion reaction and hemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-c antibodies in a Rh (D)-positive mother: Implications for immunohematological management in pregnancy
Deepti Sachan, Amrit Gupta, Veena Shenoy, Priti Elhence
January-June 2012, 6(1):48-49
  3,509 66 -
Hematological evaluation of acquired von Willebrand syndrome before oral surgery: Management of an unusual case
Gian P Bombeccari, Gianpaolo Guzzi, Paolo Bucciarelli, Francesco Pallotti, Francesco Spadari
January-June 2012, 6(1):46-47
  3,418 72 -
Reversible cerebral angiopathy after blood transfusion
Nirmesh Kothari, Sourya Acharya, Pankaj Banode
January-June 2012, 6(1):56-58
  3,394 78 1
Transfusion-transmissible infections among voluntary blood donors at Government Medical College Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
H Anjali, Ancy Issac, MR Anjali, TS Anish
January-June 2012, 6(1):55-56
  3,292 78 2
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2006 - Asian Journal of Transfusion Science | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 10th November, 2006